Drinking coffee must have heard of Coffea arabica，Coffea canephora, and Coffea liberica three kinds of coffee. .
Main coffee varieties are Arabica and Robusta. Former grows in the cool highlands of the region, better flavor and lower caffeine content, accounting for 0.9% of the weight of the coffee beans to 1.5%, the high commercial value, is the main species of the coffee industry today, accounting for 60 of the world's coffee production % to 70%, is the main source of specialty coffee; latter grows at low altitudes, disease resistance, but poor flavor, miscellaneous bitter taste, high caffeine content, there is a strange smell, accounting for 30 of the world's coffee production. % to 40%.
Basically, the beans of Arabica size is bigger than Robusta, in order to accommodate more genetic material and chemical composition. On raw bean color is different, Arabica is generally planted in the 1000 meters above sea level, the air is thinner, low temperatures, slow growth, the higher the hardness, the beans, the more blue-green color, on the contrast, Robusta sown in the ground or the elevation of 500 meters following, with ample air, high temperatures, and rapid growth, the lower the hardness, the beans, the more yellowish color.
From the shape of the coffee bean, we can easily distinguish Arabica beans and Robusta beans different. The former slightly into an oval shape than the lanky center cut part is s-shaped; latter is more round than fat, center cut almost in a straight line. Robusta the caffeine content is almost 2 times of Arabica.
Seeds - coffee beans
The fruit of the coffee, by the husk, pulp, Parchment, Silver Skin, etc. wrapped in layers, deep in the center of the most part is the seed－that is coffee beans. The seeds are usually two ; embracing fruit into a pair of the seed slightly into the semi-elliptical, two encircle ellipsoid. Some fruit which only grows a bean, more rounded shape, called Pea-Berry.
Unroasted coffee beans, we used to call it Raw Bean or Green Bean; finished baking beans, then called the Roasted Bean. Current Crop; generally will harvest beans . New Crop is the first year of the bean ; the previous year's harvest goods for Past Crop; treasury too long is called Old Crop. Old bean is not equal to Aged Bean.
Raw beans can be stored for a long life, poor storage will change the flavor of the coffee, and even generate savor. The new beans have tonality lively, natural fragrance of flowers and sour taste intense Pungent, easily highlight the individual flavor; Old bean’s flavor is stable, aroma and thickness are relatively higher. According to experience, the beans are more curved, the smaller the particle, Center Cut more showed the S-shaped, so the flavor of the coffee beans better.
The harvesting method is one of the criteria discriminant specialty coffees. Year harvest period is due to the variety, region, climate, altitude and soil. The harvest in the following ways:
machine harvested : not good quality, mature and immature fruit will all have been picked up at the same time.
rub sticks method : have a negative impact on the quality, mature and immature fruit will be harvested in conjunction.
shake tree method : will usually over matured and has significantly dried fruits with the harvest.
artificial harvesting Law: hand harvesting, only the removal of red ripe fruit. The boutique coffee hand harvesting method is to use 3-6 times the removal of red and full of fruit.
After harvesting the fruit must immediately enter the treatment program, otherwise it will start the fermentation, the beans of odors. There are two kinds of processing method Sun-Dry, also known as the Nature Dry and Washing. Complete natural the Sun-Dry beans Full Body, the gentle aroma (Mild Aroma) with more glial; Washing moderate full body, high aroma and lively acidity.
Also one’s use half-sun dry, of which there are several in transition have Pulped Natural Process Honey Process, the two categories is most often mentioned.